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NEW YEAR! NEW APPROACH!

By: Michael Lutes CFP, CLU

Certified Financial Planner

It’s a brand spankin’ new year, (2023 baby!). The calendar has turned, the slate is wiped clean, you’re at mile zero! You have twelve whole months to kick some butt when it comes to managing your money and financial planning! (Wow, I’m getting energized just writing this!!)

Perhaps you’ve already begun brainstorming ways to improve your finances in 2023. Maybe you’re hunting for new tax-efficient planning strategies. Or you think your investment portfolio could use a revamp. Or, after spending time with loved ones over the holidays, you’re inspired to audit your insurance and estate plans.

Or, like so many of us, you truly don’t know where to start.

Here’s a tip…

Start with your values. Let those values motivate your goals, life objectives, dreams. Whatever you want to call them, start there.

So, what are your values? Seriously, yours, what are they? Take a moment, take a minute, take whatever time you need…

No, no, no, not THOSE values…. those are the values you think you should have. The ones your brother incepted inside of you when you were chatting over the holidays. Or maybe those values are the ones your Instagram feed is telling you to have – fancy cars, fancy food, fancy vacations, fancy clothes, fancy blah blah blah.

Not those.

I’m talking about YOUR values. The ones that truly reflect the deepest sense of what cultivates happiness in you. The ones that make you feel authentically happy to just be. The ones that when you’re living in alignment with them you are at your most satisfied, most at peace, most content, and most fulfilled.

THOSE are your values.

(Ummm, I thought this was a financial planning blog…no?)

How does this apply to financial planning?

While considering all the calculator stuff – tax, investment returns, insurance, etc. – the best financial planning is done in a space where decisions of how to use your money – or capital (more on capital later) – are in alignment with your values. This is where financial confidence builds. This is where the real financial planning magic happens.

In this space, you stop obsessing over moves in the stock market, you don’t really care what shows up in the daily financial news, you can genuinely listen to your neighbor’s stock tip from their cousin who “worked on wall street” and effortlessly separate opinion from truth and move on.

This is the space where you can be totally and completely confident and fulfilled in your financial decision making, because you know it aligns to your values and your life objectives.

So, when it comes to financial planning this year, start with your values – dig deep, be real, be honest, be reflective – and let your values motivate your goals that ultimately drive your decision making.

Do this, and you’ll be kicking butt in 2023!

And if you’re one of us who, like most, need help uncovering their values and articulating their goals, we recommend talking to a trusted advisor who can help you through the process. If you don’t have a trusted advisor, schedule some time with us – we love to help!

Renting vs. Buying a Home

Housing prices have been climbing quickly. This is especially true in major urban centres where most Canadians live. The rate of increase for the average sale price appears to be climbing faster than people are able to save.

Some Canadians see the dream of homeownership vanishing, others wonder if the choice to own is appropriate for them. No matter the situation, objective analysis should accompany the emotional aspects of buying a home.

What You Need to Know

Regardless of the ultimate choice, affordability is an important decision criterium. No one has ever enjoyed being “house poor”, where little money is left after making your rental or mortgage payment. Based on household income and available down payment a maximum purchase price can be determined.

Every Canadian financial institution has an online calculator to determine mortgage payments. Mortgage providers employ additional analysis tools to predict whether a borrower will repay the lender based on their income, total expenses and financial history. If lenders are reluctant or refusing to provide a mortgage, perhaps the timing is not appropriate, yet.

Mortgage rates have been at the extreme low end of their range for several years as central banks around the world have attempted to revive economies through inexpensive borrowing. When interest rates are low more people and businesses can afford to borrow more. When something is on-sale people buy more, but for borrowing, you cannot decide to delay a purchase when prices rise. Payments must still be made.

At some point rates will rise and some homeowners may not be able to afford their new, higher payments. Before buying their first home, borrowers should ask themselves, “if mortgage rates rose by 2%, would I be still able to afford my payments?”. For example, a $400,000 loan with an additional 2% interest adds $8,000 interest charges per year, or $667 more each month.

That increase would sit atop the existing mortgage payment. The same $400,000 mortgage with a 25-year amortization and 2.25% 5-year fixed rate requires a monthly payment of $1,750. Each additional $100,000 adds another $450 per month to the payment.

Lenders typically limit housing costs to 35% of gross income, acquiring a mortgage will ultimately decide if you purchase and the price. If you earn $100,000 then your maximum housing costs are $35,000 per year. Subtracting property taxes, condo fees and utilities will determine the amount available for mortgage payments. If these costs totaled $14,000, then a maximum of $21,000 would remain for mortgage payments. $21,000 divided by 12 equals $1,750 per month, yielding your maximum mortgage of $400,000.

A down payment is also required; the more the better. At least 10%, but 20% is preferred to keep payments lower. In the examples above with a $400,000 mortgage a first-time home buyer should plan on a down payment of at least $50,000 netting a purchase price of $450,000.

An experiment to determine if home ownership is appropriate is to act as a homeowner while renting. That is, make housing costs equal 35% of gross income. Set aside exactly 35% each month, pay your rent and utilities and the rest goes directly into a savings account, an RRSP or TFSA. Set up the deposit like a monthly bill that is paid automatically. If you are able to practice this disciplined spending/saving approach you are able to live at 35%, if not habits may need to be changed or a more modest home purchase should be contemplated.

Continuing the example of $100,000 income, then $35,000 per year or $2,920 should go toward rent, utilities and savings. If rent is $1,800 and utilities are $150 set up an auto-deposit for $970 each month. At the end of one year, you will have nearly $12,000 more set aside. At the very least this test should increase the amount of your down payment.

While you are accumulating your down payment the type of investments you purchase and sheltering it from taxes is also important. First time homebuyers can withdraw funds from their RRSPs, for example. Certain conditions apply, of course.

The Bottom Line

A dangerous emotion during a period of rapid rises in house prices is desperation. “If we don’t buy now, we’ll never be able to afford a home” has led many to overextend themselves financially. After that has occurred owning again can be almost impossible.

Couple the dreams of home ownership with objective analysis to determine the best course of action. Prudently investing your down payment in a tax advantaged way is another important aspect of the home buying and ownership experience. We are happy to help with calculations, scenarios, timing, negotiation advice with lenders and investment recommendations.

Book an appointment with us today! – CLICK HERE

What is Probate and How to Plan for it

Probate is the process of getting your will approved by the courts. This process validates your will and allows your executors to distribute your assets.  However, probate can often be an expensive and long process. Each province has probate fees which can end up being quite substantial on a big estate. Probate can also cause serious delays in the distribution of assets from the will because once a will is probated it becomes public record. This means that it can be contested and potentially delayed while the courts settle any disputes. The good news is that with proper planning, it is possible to minimize or even eliminate the number of assets that have to go through probate.

What You Need to Know

There are a number of planning strategies that can be used to bypass or minimize probate. Below are some common strategies to make your estate as efficient as possible.

  1. Beneficiary Designation on Registered Assets – RRSP, RPP, TFSA, RRIF, LIF, and LIRA are all considered to be registered assets. This means that the CRA allows for a direct beneficiary designation. If there is a spouse, they are entitled to roll registered accounts into their own names. If there is no spouse, then the investor can name an alternative person to leave the money to that they designate directly on the investment account. Money left to a beneficiary bypasses probate and passes directly to the appointed person.
  2. Designating a Beneficiary on Non-Registered Assets – Typically, non-registered assets do not allow a beneficiary designation and automatically go to your estate to be probated. Segregated funds can be used to designate a beneficiary on non-registered assets.  Segregated funds are a life insurance product that are solely sold by life insurance companies. While the MER’s can be a little higher on segregated funds, they offer many of the same investment options that some mutual fund companies offer. Therefore, if non-registered money is invested in a segregated fund, they too will pass probate.
  3. Trusts – Any assets left to someone in trust automatically bypass probate.  There are a variety of trusts that are all used for different reasons. Trusts can be more complex than the options listed above, but they can be a very effective planning strategy that allows you to assign a trustee to manage the money.  However, it’s important to note that setting up a trust can be expensive. If avoiding probate is the sole reason for the trust, then it may be prudent to add up the costs of each to see which makes more sense.

The Bottom Line

Probate costs and hold up can be minimized with proper planning and guidance from a professional.  It is important to note that on registered and investments and segregated funds without a named beneficiary, the assets automatically go to the estate. This means they would be subject to probate.  It is a good idea to review your beneficiary designations regularly to make sure they are up to date.

Book an appointment with us – Click Here

Credit Card Debt Is Your Financial Worst Enemy

Credit card debt is a recurring debt you are allowed to owe as long as you don’t exceed your credit limit. A credit card account is tempting as you can get whatever you want on credit as long as it is within your limit. It is always advised that you shouldn’t make purchases you cannot afford to cover at month-end. Another tricky feature of a credit card account is their interest rate charges on your debt until you fully pay. Payment is usually due at month-end and failure to pay as and when due would result in the accumulation of your debt as annual interest will be charged on the amount owed. There is also a minimum payment of 1% to 2% of your balance plus other charges that must be made to ensure you keep crediting your account. If you pay less than this minimum payment, interests will be charged, and it will keep on accumulating. Owning a credit card account can be a nightmare if not properly managed.

Tips On How To Overcome Credit Card Nightmare

The basic truth about overcoming a credit card nightmare is by taking charge of your spending. If you get this right, then you will enjoy the benefit of a credit card account. Here are some tips on how you can overcome your credit card nightmare:

  •  Know Your Credit Card – Get as much information as you can on your current credit cards or potential ones. Research the issuer’s payment schedule and other terms and conditions. Be sure to confirm the interest rate and other fees that will be charged if you delay your monthly payment. You can set up automatic payments and calendar alerts to avoid falling behind on your payment.
  • Be Disciplined – You should set spending rules on your credit card that you must follow. You can set a limit on your credit card expenses in a month. This will give you control of your spending and ensure that you live within your means. It is advisable to charge on your credit card what you can normally pay for with cash or debit card.
  • Keep Track – You should routinely keep track of the status of your account at least every week. Charges accumulate without notifying you, so it is advisable to check your account at least once a week to know the state your account is in. Adopting this principle will help you track your credit card debts, the types of credit you have, and your repayment history. These are what lenders will use to rate your credit score.
  • Avoid Cash Advances – Having a credit card account that can take care of things when you can’t afford it is quite tempting. You tend to want to take cash advances because you know you have a credit card account that can take care of things. Cash advances from your credit card account result in higher interest rates and transaction fees. There is no moratorium on your cash advance. Interest is charged immediately you take the cash advance. Avoiding a cash advance will put you in full control of your credit card account.

Tips On How To Prevent Accumulation Of Credit Card Debt

Credit card debt is easy to accumulate but difficult to do repay. The only way to avoid credit card debt is to prevent it from accumulating in the first place. Here are some tips on preventing credit card debt accumulation:

  • Negotiate Your Interest Rate – Negotiating your interest rate on your credit card debt will go a long way in reducing credit card debt accumulation. The interest rates on your credit card debt are what make it difficult to settle your debt. Negotiate your interest rates with your credit card issuer so you can get the best deal possible.
  • Forget You Own A Credit Card Account – Once you are in a credit card debt, a trick you can try to prevent accumulating debt is to put your credit card away for other purchases, at least until you meet up with your monthly repayment. That is why it is advisable to use your credit card for short-term financial needs such as utilities, groceries, and some other monthly bills. This will lighten the burden on your credit card account by keeping your balance within a reasonable limit. If you can avoid using your credit card for a while, it will go a long way in reducing your debt burden.
  • Pay Your Debt As and When Due – Simply put, what makes your credit card debt pile up are the charges and interest rates on delayed payments. The best way to get over this is to pay your credit card debt as and due. Missing a due payment can leave you playing catch up. Your next payment will be for two months.
  • Watch Your Spending – A credit card account can leave you spending lavishly but you need to caution yourself and stick to what you can afford. Going for everything you see for sale is part of what gives you credit card debt. It is advisable to always avoid unnecessary spending.

Owe More Taxes than You Can Pay? Here Are Your Options.

Tax season is upon us and unfortunately that means paying any taxes that may be outstanding. Taxes should be carefully planned each year to ensure they do not become overwhelming, but what happens if you are faced with an unexpectedly large bill?

The most important thing to do if you have a large tax bill coming your way is to file your taxes on time.  Avoidance does not work with the CRA and it is best to face tax debt head one.  Delaying will only end up with additional penalties. There are a number of strategies available to help you deal with your tax debt.

What You Need to Know

1. Get a Personal Loan: This is the first step the CRA will expect you to take to pay off your debt.  Personal loans, borrowing against the value of your home, or borrowing from an individual are all options here. This will be the path of least resistance for most people. A personal loan will wipe out your debt to the CRA and allow you to create a reasonable payment plan for your situation that gives you flexibility to defer if necessary.

2. Access the Value in Your Home: Your home is often the biggest asset you own. Therefore, there are usually options to borrow against the value of the home. This can be done is a few ways:

  • Home Equity Line of Credit: The first options are looking into lending products such as a Home Equity Line of Credit (HELOC). HELOC’s work by allowing a homeowner to take out of large line of credit on their home.  Many people use these products as a mortgage alternative, but they also work to access the value of your home without selling the property.
  • Refinancing your Home: Refinancing is essentially taking a new mortgage out on your house. If you currently have a mortgage, this may mean replacing that mortgage with a new one that has a higher principal amount. If you are currently living mortgage free, this means picking a mortgage on the house as you normally would if you were buying a new house.
  • Use Your House as Collateral for a Loan: Many loans, especially those of large amounts, require collateral before they are issued. This means the lending institution wants something of value put up against the loan in case the loan is not repaid.
  • Sell Your Property: A last resort but selling a property may be the only way to gain access to its value if you are unable to secure financing.

3. Request for Taxpayer Relief: Individuals with outstanding debts to the CRA may be able to request “Taxpayer Relief”. Taxpayer Relief can reduce your amount owing by offering relief from penalties and interest charges.  Typically, taxpayer relief is only granted under extraordinary circumstances such as job loss, serious illness, and a clear inability to pay. Taxpayers must submit a formal request to the CRA using form RC4288 and submitting complete and accurate documentation of their circumstances.

4. Request a Payment Plan: Taxpayers may request a payment plan from the CRA but only after they have exhausted all other reasonable options to pay their balance i.e. Personal loan, refinancing house etc. Payment plans are typically not available for large amounts that can’t be repaid in a year. When negotiating a payment plan with the CRA it is always best to involve a tax professional who can make the negotiation for you.  CRA negotiators are experienced and their main concern is getting the balance owing as quickly as possible. It isn’t uncommon for taxpayers to enter a payment plan that is unrealistic for their financial situation.  CRA’s priority will always be the debt owed to them.

5. Declare Bankruptcy: Declaring bankruptcy has devastating short- and long-term financial effects and should only be utilized as an absolute last resort. Assets could be ceased and you will be unable to obtain credit for many years.  All options should be exhausted before resorting to bankruptcy. Hiring a debt counselor to help you decide if bankruptcy is indeed your only option would be prudent.

The Bottom Line

Tax debt can be overwhelming but realize there are options available to you.  It is always recommended that a professional tax consultant be hired if debt becomes unmanageable. They can help you consolidate debt, make payment plans, and negotiate with the CRA on your behalf.

5 Ways to Avoid Capital Gains Tax

Capital Gains tax occurs when you sell capital property for more than you paid for it. In Canada, you are only taxed on 50% of your capital gain. For example, if you bought an investment for $25,000 and sold it for $75,000 you would have a capital gain of $50,000.  You would then be taxed on 50% of the gain. In this instance, you would pay tax on $25,000.  In Canada, there are some legitimate ways to avoid paying this tax: Tax shelters, Lifetime Capital Gains Exemption, Capital Losses, Deferring, and Charitable Giving. *

What You Need to Know

1.   Tax Shelters

RRSPs and TFSAs are investment vehicles that are available to Canadians that allow investments to be bought and sold with no immediate tax implications:

  • RRSPs – Registered Retirement Savings Plans are popular tax sheltering accounts.  Investments in these accounts grow tax free and you are not subject to capital gains on profits.  When you withdraw your funds, you will be taxed at your marginal tax rate.
  • TFSAs – Tax Free Savings Accounts are like RRSPs in that they allow investments to grow tax free and you are not subject to capital gains tax on the profits you make. The key difference between TFSAs and RRSPs is that TFSAs hold after tax dollars. This means you can withdraw from the account without incurring tax penalties.

2.   Lifetime Capital Gains Exemption

The Lifetime Capital Gains Exemption is available to some small business owners in Canada. It is allowing them to avoid capital gains when they sell shares of their business, a farming property, or fishing property. The CRA determines the exemption amount annually.  The Lifetime Capital Gains Exemption amount is cumulative over your lifetime and can be used until the entire amount has been applied.

3.   Offset Capital Losses

Generally, if you have had an allowable capital loss for the year, you can use it offset any capital gain tax you have owing. This can reduce or eliminate the taxes you will owe. There are a few considerations for employing this strategy:

  • Losses have to a real loss in the eyes of the CRA. Superficial losses will not be allowed to offset gains.
  • You can carry your losses forward or backward to apply them to different tax years. Losses can be carried back 3 years and carried forward indefinitely. This means you can accumulate losses that can be used to offset gains in future years.

4.   Defer Your Earnings

A possible strategy is to defer your earnings on the sale of an asset because you only will owe tax on the earnings that you have received.  For example, if you sell a property for $200,000 you could ask the buyer to stagger their payments over 4 years. Then you would receive $50,000 a year. This would allow you to spread out your capital gain tax.

This strategy is known as the Capital Gain Reserve.  There are a few things you need to keep in mind before using this strategy:

  • The Capital Gains Reserve can be claimed up to 5 years.
  • There is a 20% inclusion rate for each year. This means you must include at least 20% of the proceeds in your income each year for up to 5 years.
  • There are some instances that the 5-year period can be extended to 10 years.

5.   Charity

Consider donating shares of property to charities instead of cash. This method allows you to make a charitable donation, receive a tax credit based on the donation, and avoid tax on any profit. Win-win!

* Avoiding or deferring Capital Gain Taxes should always be done with the guidance of a professional financial advisor and accountant to ensure all CRA guidelines are being carefully followed.

Book an appointment to meet with us! Click Here

Donating Life Insurance Policies

For many individuals there comes a time when life insurance is no longer needed. Whether it be a spouse has passed away, your children are grown, or you simply have the wealth to cover any unexpected expenses. A common route is to cancel life insurance and take the cash surrender value. This may be the solution for some individuals, but many policy owners may be interested in keeping the coverage in force and gifting the life insurance to a charity. Upon their death they could leave a lasting legacy in their community and receive a potentially substantial tax break.

What You Need to Know

How to Donate a Policy

Method 1: Charity as a Beneficiary

The most common way to donate a policy to charity is to simply name the charity as the beneficiary of the life insurance policy. The insured would simply assign the charity as the beneficiary, and upon their death the charity would receive a tax-free lump sum payout. The insureds estate would then receive a tax credit based on the amount of the gift.

Method 2: Charity as Policy Owner & Beneficiary

Another option is to have the charity of your choice agree to take over ownership of the policy and become the beneficiary. Similar to the previous method, the charity would still receive the tax- free payout upon the insured death, avoiding probate. The difference between this method and the previous method is that the insured would receive a tax credit immediately. If the insured continues to pay the premium, they will receive additional tax credits as well.

This method comes with more considerations then simply naming the charity as the beneficiary. The first and most important consideration is whether or not the charity is willing to take on ownership. If the insured does not plan to pay the policy premiums anymore it is possible charity may not be able to take over the premium payments. It may be an extended process to find a donor who would be able and willing to take on such a commitment. One solution to this problem may be to donate a policy that is functioning has gone paid up. Paid up policies allow their cash value to pay the premiums, eliminating the need for payor.  Another consideration is the possibility that the charity will no longer be operating at the time of the insured’s death. Both of these matters would require extensive planning to avoid.

Lastly, since the tax credit would be granted while the donor is alive, it is important to ensure that the entire tax credit can be used. Living taxpayers are only eligible for a tax credit that is worth 75% of their income for the year and can only be carried forward up to 5 years. It is not unlikely that the FMV of the life insurance policy would be more than the insureds yearly income, causing a portion of the tax benefits to be lost.

Case Study

Mary is a 71-year-old widow. All of her children are grown and independent. Mary lives very comfortably on her retirement savings and her husband’s life insurance proceeds. Many years ago, Mary purchased a whole life participating life insurance policy for herself in the event she was to die before her husband. She has recently realized that she no longer needs the coverage, as she has sufficient savings to settle her estate and leave an inheritance to her children. Mary does not want to cancel the policy as it has grown substantially over the years.

Mary’s insurance advisor recommends that she donate the life insurance to a charity. Her advisor explains that if she makes a charity her beneficiary then the charity will receive the life insurance benefit upon her death and her estate will receive a tax credit for an amount equal to the FMV of the donated policy.

This option sounds very appealing to Mary, as she is an active volunteer in her community and she understands the good her donation could do.  Her advisor refers her to an actuary and underwriter, who evaluate her policy to have a FMV of $250,000.

By choosing this option, Mary was able to give a substantial gift to the charity of her choice and was able to reduce her taxes upon her death in her estate, leaving more money for her family.

The Bottom Line

Make sure you talk to your advisor about all of your options before cancelling your life insurance policies. Donating a policy is a little known or talked about option, but it may the perfect solution for some people. Your advisor can help you find the resources necessary to make transactions such as this as successful and beneficial as possible.

Click HERE to book an appointment with us today!

The Insanity of RRSP Season

As each February concludes and RRSP contribution season ends, investors across Canada exhale and exclaim, “Never again.”  Investors go through a swirl of emotions awaiting annual bonuses and jumping through hoops to make their annual RRSP contribution. And the next year, they will do it all over again. To change this hamster-wheel of hastily called meetings, sound recommendations hobbled by hurried decisions the planning should begin long before RRSP season. There is no time like the present to change the upcoming flurry of activity associated with RRSPs.

Most importantly of all, a last-minute approach to retirement saving and investing means that you do not benefit as much as you could. Instead of enjoying the rewarding experience of saving for the future, it becomes a panicked, last-minute appointment. This is far from the measured, planned and calm approach that trusted Advisors espouse. A new routine can be created with a Pre-Authorized Credit (PAC) that makes regular contributions to your RRSP.

 What you need to know

What would be the difference to an investor between depositing $24,000 per year at the end of February versus $2,000 at the beginning of every month?  The difference becomes clear when calculated over a 20-year period. In both scenarios an investor has contributed the same amount, $600,000 (25 x $24,000 or 300 x $2,000).

But the amount at the end of the period is not the same! 

  • At 6% after 25 years the annual $24,000 approach will yield $1,316,748
  • At 6% after 25 years the monthly $2,000 approach will yield $1,385,988

A difference of nearly $70,000!

In almost every case, this is a conservative estimate. The difference is usually much larger because an investor who commits to monthly contributions and agrees to a PAC (Pre-Authorized Contributions) is much more disciplined. An annual, large payment is more susceptible to the negative effects of variations in year-end bonuses and a year of day-to-day spending. The temptation is to believe that, if skipped, payments can be caught-up later, which the effects of compound interest make it difficult to achieve.

 The Bottom Line

Setting up a monthly PAC can help you retire sooner. The only difference is how frequently you make your RRSP contributions. Nothing more, nothing less.

Contact us to discuss starting or increasing your RRSP PAC!! Click Here!

How To Create A Portfolio For The Long Run

The concept of investment is no longer alien and almost everyone now has one form of investment or the other tucked away somewhere. Even new babies now have investments. Just as there is no age limit to investing so is there no limit to the extent of time you can hold your investment. You can hold your investments for decades and reap multiple profits on them. It is not all about having a long-term investment portfolio; there is a science to it also. It is important to be strategic in your choice of investment portfolios. Everyone has a risk appetite, and it is important to choose an investment portfolio that conforms with your risk principles. Another key factor to having a healthy long-term investment portfolio is adapting your investment approach to the changing dynamics of the financial market.

Secrets To Creating a Long-term Investment Portfolio 

When it comes to having an investment portfolio, it is important that you make the right decisions. This is what will ensure a healthy investment portfolio. If you are looking to grow your wealth over a 20-to-25-year span, you should try the following tips:

  1. Select The Appropriate Asset Allocation: At this stage, you use your current financial situation to determine how you want to spread out your investment portfolio. To successfully do this, you must consider your age, the amount of capital you want to invest, and your risk appetite. Your risk appetite is important because when it comes to investment, you will make losses at one point or the other. So, depending on your risk appetite, you should choose an investment portfolio that is in line with your risk appetite. You should also consider your current expenses as you do not want to invest all your money and be left with nothing to settle your bills.
  2. Structuring Your Portfolio: After determining how you want to allocate your investment portfolios, the next thing to do is to determine how much goes into each portfolio. This is where you determine how much goes into bonds, stocks, and cryptocurrencies. You can also go further by further dividing your portfolio allocations. For example, if you have an equity portfolio, you may decide to spread it across different industries to minimize your risks. You can also spread your bond portfolio into short-term bonds and long-term bonds.
  3. Monitoring and Reviewing: After successfully structuring your investment portfolios, you need to keep an eye on them to make necessary adjustments where necessary. The fact that they are long-term investments does not mean you can abandon them and check them when you are ready to cash out. You analyze your positions from time to time and rebalance them where necessary. This is made necessary because of the constant price movements in the financial market which will make your initial trading positions change. Your current financial needs may also require you to change your position. If you have extra cash to invest, you may want to pump in more money and if you need cash, you may want to deduct from profits already accrued.
  4. Strategic Rebalancing: After reviewing your portfolio and there is a need to rebalance your positions to make your portfolios healthy, you need to go about it in a strategic way.  In other words, while you identify a performing portfolio, you should also determine the portfolio you can use the proceeds of the performing security to buy. These are strategic decisions that must be taken carefully to ensure an all-round healthy investment portfolio over a long period.

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